Moscow University. (Found photography, 1960s-1970s.)

Private holiday photographs can tell lot about the Soviet tourism. Where brochures, postcards and other Intourist materials reflect the perspective of the state to tourism, photos people have took themselves reveal the more private side of travelling. Here is a snapshot bought from the messy stacks of Udelnaya flea market at St. Petersburg. It is clearly a tourist photo, with the tour busses and the famous Moscow university building in the background, taken sometime in the 1960s or 1970s. The appearance of the woman in the forefront speaks volumes about the ordinary Soviet tourist. She seems bit timid but still enthusiastic, and she has dressed up for the occasion to highlight the importance of travelling. Fundamentally, tourism in the Soviet Union was about the same things than everywhere.

Crimea. (Brochure, 1970s.)

Crimea was THE destination of Soviet tourism from 1920s, when bolsheviks belonging to the nomenclature had their dachas there, right into the 1980s, when Soviet mass tourism was at its peak. Moreover, Crimea was, and still is, symbolically important, as the latest events in the area have shown. Soviet Union marketed Crimea also to foreign tourists, and there were some hotels that were open only to western holidaymakers. Here is a brochure printed in Finland in 1970s, advertising Crimea and the Caucasus as a destination. All the vacation cliches are there: deep blue sea, golden sand, nature and tranquility. Even freedom is hinted, as travelling is done by a private car. In the late Soviet era, tourism in Crimea had many features in common with the western tourism of the same era.

City’s new suburb, Vyborg. (Postcard, 1970s.)

During the late Soviet era city postcards still clung to the idea of representing the most modern buildings, like in the beginning of the Soviet Union. Vyborg, a former Swedish town at the western border of Russia, has a pictueresque old town, age-old walls, and it even boasts a castle, but here we are with a Soviet postcard titled “New microraion of the city.” Microraion was a word that was used in the Soviet Union about new, huge suburbs, many of them towns in their own right. They were considered as pride of any city in the 1970s, when many microraions were built to ease up the cramped living in kommunalkas, and of course they found their way to the postcards – with sea view and wasteland beach.

Terrace Cafe in Leningrad. (Brochure, 1970s.)

Tourism in the Soviet Union wast gradually westernized from 1970s onward, and even Russian language guide books would now add few photos of unproductive leisure and innocent fun alongside all the factories, kolkhozes, Lenin statues etc. one definetely had to see to be a good tourist. Here is an illustration from a brochure presenting Leningrad to Soviet travelers. The image highlights, that there were European style terrace cafes in the Soviet Union, especially in the “most western city” of the country, as Leningrad was called.

Gostinitsa, Rzhev. (Postcard, 1970s.)

What is often remembered from Soviet tourism are the gigantic Intourist hotels in the bigger cities – especially as many of them are still standing and in use. But in smaller towns, where tourism was not exactly blooming, the hotels were more compact and adapted into existing buildings. Here is the city hotel of Rzhev, town situated in the western part of Russia between Moscow and Latvian capital Riga. There was no special attractions in Rzhev at Soviet era – it was a medieval city, but the old buildings were wiped out in the World War II. So small hotel was quite enough to serve the travellers passing by. Nevertheless, it was immortalized in one of the postcards from the postcard series of Rzhev.

Autotourism. (Stamp, 1970s.)

In the 1970s tourism was already a big business in the Soviet Union. It was promoted as a leisure activity that indicated freedom and equality. Of course, real freedom and equality were still mostly lacking in the Soviet Union – and that’s exactly the reason they had to be advertised. Here is as stamp from the series “Foreign Tourism in the Soviet Union”. It might initially feel weird that stamps promoting foreign tourism were published for Soviet citizens and in Russian language, but when seen as propaganda, it isn’t that weird. State wanted comrades to think, that Soviet Union is an open country, where foreign tourists can come and drive around everywhere (as indicated by the beautifully carved landscapes at the background) and take photos – all activities that were restricted for foreigners. Stamps with wide circulation were good means of spreading this false image.

Neptune Greets You. (Brochure, 1970s.)

During the 1950s Soviet tourism was still bit stiff and official, but in the 1970s it began to relax. People didn’t anymore go to Black Sea resorts to heal from sicknesses under surveillance of doctors, but to rest and have fun. This was reflected in the postcards and guide books. This photograph is from a 1970s brochure presenting Soviet Black Sea resorts to Finnish audience. Apparently, “Neptune parties” became a thing during that time. Intourist representative was dressed as God of the sea, Neptune, and he entertained Soviet and foreign tourists.